Ian Yarrow's notes on the Genus Vespula

Systematics and other topics

Ian Yarrow's notes on the Genus Vespula

Postby Anthony Daglio on 02 Jun 2016, 15:21

Ian Yarrow was a British entomologist who was working on the taxonomy, distribution, and keys of yellowjackets (Dolichovespula & Vespula) on a worldwide basis in the late 1950's. During the course of his studies Yarrow had descovered a few new forms. Yarrow had decided not to publish his work as he thought his notes were incomplete. These new forms listed in Yarrow's notes were later formally described by Micheal Archer who took over Yarrow's work in the late 1970's. The only mention of these notes other than the results of Yarrow's work in publications by Archer (1980, 1981a,b, 1982, 1987, 1989, 1997) was made by Van der Vecht (1959) in his paper on Vespa and Provespa species entitled: Notes on Oriental Vespinae, including some species from China and Japan. On P. 207 of this paper Van der Vecht stated "The Asiatic representatives of Vespula are being studied by I.H. H. Yarrow, British Museum (Natural History)." I have recently aquired a copy of Ian Yarrow's notes on the Genus Vespula (or the Vespula rufa group) which was kindly made for me by Gavin Broad of the British Museum of Natural History (BMNH) in London, U.K. to whom I owe many thanks. These notes were fragmentary and some parts are illegible, but still useful. I will transcribe some of the keys in Yarrow's notes on Vespula here in this post to get a feel for what he was trying to accomplish. Most of these notes are attempts to write keys to the world species. Most of these keys are incomplete and I will transcribe each key separately as well as notes on each species including specimen data, a list of synonyms of each species and taxonomic notes. There are also figures and maps which I will include to this post as well. These notes are of great interest to me as they deal with some very interesting forms such as V. schrenkii and V. schrenkii siberica.
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Re: Ian Yarrow's notes on the Genus Vespula

Postby Anthony Daglio on 02 Jun 2016, 15:34

Vespula Thompson 1869
Type species Vespula austriaca (Panzer)
Synonyms -
Psuedovespa Schmiedecknecht 1881,
Type species Vespa austriaca (Panzer)
Allovespula Bluthgen 1943
Type species Vespa rufa Linneaus

Checklist of the species of the Genus Vespula

Subgenus Vespula
1a.) V. austriaca Panzer
1b.) V. austriaca arborea Smith
1c.) V. austriaca infernalis De Saussure

Subgenus Allovespula
2a.) V. rufa (L.)
2b.) V. rufa intermedia Buysson (Hudson's Bay)
2c.) V. rufa schrenkii Radoszkowski (= siberica Andre) E. Asia
2d.) V. rufa grahami China
3.) V. nursei Kashmir (queens and workers), E. Punjab (queens)
4.) V. kingdonwardi Tibet (queens, workers, males)
5a.) V. acadica Sladen
5b) V. acadica sladeni Bequaert
6.) V. vidua de Saussure
7.) V. atropilosa Sladen
8.) V. consobrina de Saussure

? New subgenus
9.) V. sulphurea de Saussure
10a.) V. squamosa Drury
10b) V. squamosa michoacana Bequaert (Mexico)
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Re: Ian Yarrow's notes on the Genus Vespula

Postby Anthony Daglio on 02 Jun 2016, 15:49

Keys to the Subgenus Vespula (austriaca) (Key #1)

Queens

1. Upper frons dull, the interspaces between the puntures granulate, the punctures themselves deep, rather close together and of varying diameter. Large punctures of the clypeus deeper, closer together, very evident, metaplureon clearly punctured. sternites not very coursly punctured except basally..................................................2

- Upper frons rather shining, the interspaces filled with very small but very definate punctures, the larger punctures much smaller and wider apart, almost absent in the median area. large punctures of the clypeus shallow, wider apart but not that evident. metaplureon with only very ill defined punctures or almost impunctate. sternites, especially apical very coarsely punctured.......................................................................................................................................................austriaca infernalis de Saussure

2. lateral spots on T-3 and small sternites always isolated, nearly attached to median or basal black area..............................................................austriaca arborea Smith

- lateral spots on T3 always attached to median black area, on sternites almost always semicircular expansions of basal black area...........................austriaca austriaca Panzer
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Re: Ian Yarrow's notes on the Genus Vespula

Postby Anthony Daglio on 02 Jun 2016, 16:40

Key to queens of the Genus Vespula (Allovespula) and Vespula (austriaca) (Key #2)

1. punctures of ms large and coarse, in anterior half, especially laterally frequently coalescing, puntures very fine, the interspaces wider than diameter of punctures, ms entierly black........................................................................................................................................................................................Vespula rufa group

- punctures of ms smaller, nowhere coalescing; puntures clearly defined and close together, in some species the interspaces almost non-existant and the scutum appaers very dull; ms black except in 2spp which have longetudinal yellow stripes.............................................................................................................................................5

2. pale spots and bands yellow.....................................................................................................................................................................................3

- pale spots and bands white........................................................................................................................................................................................4

3. pronotal lobes and clypeus largely orange yellow................................................................................................................rufa grahami n.ssp (China, Szechwan)

- pronotal lobes with a narrow parrallel sided stripe; clypeus with a black anchor mark or largely black; T-1 and T-2 largly marked with red.......................rufa rufa (L.) (Eurasia)

4. T-1 and T-2 strongly marked with red............................................................................................................................intermedia (Buysson) (Canada, Siberia)

- T-1 and T-2 not marked with red, but black with narrow apical bands and with or without basal spots...........................rufa schrenkii (Radoszkowski) (East Siberia, Kamchatka)

5. propodeum except for laterally with only very short pale hairs............................................................................................................................................6

- propodeum with long black hairs................................................................................................................................................................................10

6. mesoscutum with parallel longitudinal orange or yellow stripes, T-1 with pale hairs above declivity; tibia without any long black hairs....................................................7

- mesoscutum entierly black, T-1 with black hairs above declivity, tibia with long black hairs from base to apex...................................................................................8

7. pale markings orange; abdomen almost entierly orange, gasteral segments 2-5 with slight traces of lateral spots....................................squamosa (Drury) (E. North America)

- pale markings bright lemon yellow; abdomen very conspicuosly black marked, clypeus with lateral angles very sharply toothed............sulphurea (Saussure) (S.W. North America)

8. upper frons dull, the interspaces between the punctures minutely granulate, the punctures rather deep, close together and of ranging diameter, large punctures of clypeus very distinct, sternites except basally, not much more coarsely punctured than tergites......................................................................................................................9

- upper frons rather shining, the interspaces filled with small but quite distinct punctures, the larger punctures shallower and smaller and not very conspicuous, the large punctures of clypeus smaller and narrower....................................................................................................austriaca infernalis (Saussure) (North America, Canada)

9. lateral spots on T-3 free, T-1 most commonly yellow with 3 black spots, sternites with free spots...................................................austriaca arborea (Smith) (British Isles)

- lateral spots on T-3 attached to the median black area as in T-2, T-1 black with an apical line with two basal yellow spots, in specimens from east Asia the yellow markings may be much reduced and T-2 consists of an appical band with two small yellow spots...........................................................................austriaca austriaca (Panzer) (Eurasia)
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Re: Ian Yarrow's notes on the Genus Vespula

Postby Anthony Daglio on 02 Jun 2016, 16:43

Keys to workers of the Genus Vespula (Key #3)

1. 3rd cubital cell much longer on radius than on cubitus, the base of 2nd cell much (absent 2x) as long as that of 3rd (as in Dolichovespula) T-1 not at all raised up basally, scape longer than 3...............................................................................................................................................................................................................sulphurea (Saussure)

-3rd cubital cell very little longer on radius than on cubitus, base of 2nd cell not nearly 2x that of 3rd, T-1 distinctly raised basally.........................................................................2

2. hairs on T-1 black, mn entierly black.........................................................................................................................................................................................3

- hairs on T-1 pale, mn with yellow stripes, wings usually very dark brown, scape longer than 3........................................................squamosa (Drury) + squamosa michoacana Bequaert

3. occular-malar space very short as to be virtually absent...................................................................................................................................................................4

- occular malar space longer, clarly recognizable, (not as long as in any Dolichovespula, but longer than in any known Vespula species), mn punctures small, rather wide apart; clypeus in queen
largely black, only two pale stripes laterally, abdomen balck with pale yellow bands, T-1 laterally red, T-2 with red transverse spots, in workers T-1 and T-2 very largly red, scape shorter than 3
...................................................................................................................................................................................................................kingdonwardi sp. nov

4. mn with primary punctures large course and close together, separated by single intermediate sized punctures, the fine secondary punctures weaker and not so close as to leave no interspace,
hind tibia without long black hairs basally.........................................................................................................................................................................................5

- mn with primary punctures, smaller and wider apart, usually seperated by several intermediate sized punctures, the secondary punctures more deeply impressed and so close together as to
leave no flat interspace; hind tibia with some long black hairs basally......................................................................................................................................................10

5. pale markings white or yellowish white.........................................................................................................................................................................................6

- pale markings yellow, or reddish yellow..........................................................................................................................................................................................7

6. T-1 and or T-2 with red spots or blotches..........................................................................................................................................................rufa intermedia (Buysson)

- T-1 and T-2 entierly without red markings in queens, in workers some red present.......................................................................................................................................7

7. T-1 and T-2 with yellow basal spots.............................................................................................................................................................rufa schrenkii (Radoszkowski)

- T-1 and T- 2 entirely black...............................................................................................................................................................................schrenkii sibirica (Andre)
Note: According to Birula (1930) this is the extreme xanthic form of schrenkii occuring only in E. Siberia with variations toward typical schrenkii. Bequaert (1931) has also pointed out how close
the American intermedia and schrenkii are.

8. long hairs on abdomen sparse, the punctures from which they arise small but visible at certain angles on T-1 and T-2, almost undetectable on the remaining tergites, hind tibia with some long
black hairs.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................9

- long hairs on abdomen more abundant the punctures from which they arise larger and readily detected on all tergites except the apical one................................................................10

9. T-1 largly yellow, with a transverse diamond shaped black spot at the base centrally and a small black spot on each side, tergites 3-5 with widely separated semi-decumbent short black hairs
T-1 and T-2 largely yellow..........................................................................................................................................................................................atropilosa (Sladen)

- T-1 largely black with a narrow apical band plus two basal yellow transverse stripes, black hairs on tergites 3-5 long and restricted to apical margin, T-1 and T-2 with only narrow apical bands.....
.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................vidua (Saussure)

10 T- and T-2 black or black with narrow yellow apical and basal marks........................................................................................................................................................11

- T-1 and T-2 largly red as are the remaining tergites, T-2 with short central dark mark separating two rather indefinate oblique yellow patches (absent in queen) two workers of rufa var intermedia
(Buysson) have T-1 with transverse black band, T-2 red with central black spot attached to stalk to base, the rest of gasteral tergites black with almoststraight apical yellow fascia......nursei sp.nov

11. pale markings almost white, T-1 white apical band very narrow, interrupted across or can be absent, no basal pale marks...............................................................consobrina (Saussure)

- pale markings clearly yellow, T-1 with at least faint yellow marks basally............................................................................................................acadica (Sladen) + sladeni Bequaert
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Re: Ian Yarrow's notes on the Genus Vespula

Postby Anthony Daglio on 02 Jun 2016, 19:01

I have decided not to post the rest as I do not have time to do so at the moment and there are over 60 pages. I will however post a link to this fascinating document here: http://www.academia.edu/25847530/Yarrow ... _Vespidae_
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Re: Ian Yarrow's notes on the Genus Vespula

Postby Anthony Daglio on 08 Aug 2016, 23:08

Here is another on of Ian Yarrow's folders. This one was kindly scanned recently by Gavin Broad of the British Museum of Natural History. It is his notes on the Genus Paravespula or the Vespula vulgaris group: http://www.academia.edu/27287830/Yarrow ... aris_group
These notes contain a key to species, maps, notes, specimens data, and much much more useful information.
The species covered in this paper are:

1.) P. flaviceps Smith

2.) P. flaviceps lewisii Cameron

3.) P. flaviceps karenkona Sonan

4.) P. flaviceps nan ssp. nov

5.) P. flaviceps pei ssp. nov

6.) P. germanica (F.)

7.) P. koreensis Radoszkowski

8.) P. koreensis stizoides du Buysson

9.) P. maculifrons du Buysson

10.) P. orbata du Buysson

11.) P. pensylvanica de Saussure

12.) P. structor Smith

13.) P. vulgaris (L.)
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