A list of works on the Taiwanese Social Wasp fauna

Systematics and other topics

Re: A list of works on the Taiwanese Social Wasp fauna

Postby Anthony Daglio on 21 Dec 2015, 07:01

Females of Ropalidia taiwana Sonan.
Attachments
Female of Ropalidia taiwana Sonan3.JPG
Female of Ropalidia taiwana Sonan
Female of Ropalidia taiwana Sonan2.jpg
Female of Ropalidia taiwana Sonan
Female of Ropalidia taiwana Sonan1.jpg
Female of Ropalidia taiwana Sonan
Female of Ropalidia taiwana Sonan.jpg
Female of Ropalidia taiwana Sonan
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Re: A list of works on the Taiwanese Social Wasp fauna

Postby Anthony Daglio on 22 Dec 2015, 02:57

I have recently uploaded the excellent book on the social and solitary wasps of Taiwan by Yamane & Wang (1996): Hornets, Paper Wasps, and Potter Wasps: Guide Book to Insects of Taiwan (16) here: http://www.academia.edu/19773137/Yamane ... Taiwan_16_
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Re: A list of works on the Taiwanese Social Wasp fauna

Postby Anthony Daglio on 26 Feb 2016, 09:13

Recently I have found a website that has many photos of the Holotypes of both social and solitary wasp species described by Jinhaku Sonan from 1927-1944
here: http://timdm.tari.gov.tw/aic/insect.php ... ymenoptera
and here: http://timdm.tari.gov.tw/aic/insect.php ... ymenoptera

I will be uploading photos of the holotype specimens and Lectotypes of the social wasp species described by Sonan from Taiwan as well as provide a bibliography of Sonan's complete works in this forum.

The list of type species included in this photo index are as follows:

VESPINAE
Genus Vespa
a.) Vespa flavitarsis Sonan 1929 (=velutina Lepeletier (1836)
b.) Vespa formosana Sonan 1927 (=affinis Linnaeus (1764)

Genus Vespula
a.) Vespa arisana Sonan (1929)
b.) Vespa karenkona Sonan (1929) (=flaviceps Smith (1870)
c.) Vespa 4-maculata Sonan (1929) (=flaviceps Smith (1870)

POLISTINAE
Genus Ropalidia
a.) R. taiwana Sonan 1935

Genus Parapolybia
a.) P. takasagona Sonan 1944

Genus Polistes
a.) P. formosanus Sonan 1927
b.) P. mandinarinius var. eboshinus Sonan 1943 (=eboshinus Sonan (1943)

Bibliography of Jinhaku Sonan according to Kojima et al (2011).

1.) Sonan, J. (1927) Taiwan-san hachirui su-shu no gakumei oyobi kansatsu [only in Japanese, without English title. Translation to
English: On scientific names and observations on biology of some hymenopteran insects in Taiwan; Starr (1992) gave the
English translation of the title of this article as “Taxonomic notes and observations on Hymenoptera of Taiwan”]. Transactions
of the Natural History Society of Formosa, 17, 121–138, pls. 1 & 2. (In Japanese).

2.) Sonan, J. (1929) On Vespa from Formosa (1). Transactions of the Natural History Society of Formosa, 19, 136–149, pl. 6. (In
Japanese).

3.) Sonan, J. (1931) Some wasps and bees of Hôkotô (Pescadores) (2). Transactions of the Natural History Society of Formosa, 21,
6–8. (In Japanese).

4.) Sonan, J. (1935a) On the genus Ropalidia from Formosa and Okinawa (Hymenoptera, Vespidae). Transactions of the Natural
History Society of Formosa, 25, 199–202.

5.) Sonan, J. (1935b) Descriptions of two new species of the family Vespidae. Transactions of the Natural History Society of Formosa,
25, 370–372.

6.) Sonan, J. (1937) Two new species and one new genus of Hymenoptera. Transactions of the Natural History Society of Formosa,
27, 169–174.

7.) Sonan, J. (1938) H. Sauter's Formosa-collection: Polistes, Montezumia and Pareumenes. Arbeiten über Morphologische und
Taxonomische Entomologie, 5, 66–70.

8.) Sonan, J. (1943) Taiwan-san ashinagabachi-zoku Polistes Latreille ni tsuite [no English title; translation to English: On the genus
Polistes Latreille from Taiwan]. Transactions of the Natural History Society of Formosa, 33, 467–484. (In Japanese).

9.) Sonan, J. (1944) On Parapolybia Saussure in Taiwan. Transactions of the Natural History Society of Formosa, 34, 342–345. (In
Japanese).
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Re: A list of works on the Taiwanese Social Wasp fauna

Postby Anthony Daglio on 26 Feb 2016, 09:22

I am adding notes on the types of Sonan as provided in the excellent review by Kojima et al (2011) On the species-group taxa of Taiwanese social wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) described and/or treated by J. Sonan: http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/2011/f/zt02920p064.pdf

Notes on Sonan's Holotypes of Vespa species described from Taiwan

1.) Vespa formosana Sonan 1927 [Vespa affinis Linnaeus 1764]

Sonan (1927) did not designate the holotype when he described this nominal taxon based on queen(s) [body length
28 mm; wing span 50 mm; fore wing length 21 mm], worker(s) [body length 22 mm; wing span 35 mm; fore wing
length 16 mm] and male(s) [body length 21 mm; wing span 41 mm; fore wing length 18 mm] from “Taihoku, Kagi,
Takezaki, Nanto, Daimokko, Maruyama”. Starr (1992: 102) mentioned “types examined: 1 queen, 1 worker, 1 ♂”,
which does not constitute lectotype designation.
Type material. In TARI, we located only the following specimens that could be from the type series of Vespa
formosana. LECTOTYPE (designated here): one queen (body length 28 mm; wing span 46 mm; fore wing length
20 mm), with labels of Type label, “Taihoku / 3.VII 1926 / Col. J. Sonan”, “Vespa formosana / Sonan”, and “161”.
PARALECTOTYPES: one worker (body length 21 mm; wing span 33 mm; fore wing length 16 mm), with Type
label, “♀ type”, “Kagi / 14 VI 1926 / Toyota”, “Vespa formosana / Sonan” and “162”; and 1 ♂ (body length 19
mm; fore wing length 18 mm), with Type label, “type ♂”, “Vespa formosana / Sonan”, and “163” but without any
collection data label. These specimens could be those that Starr (1992) refered to as “types examined”.
Sonan (1929) listed the following specimens that he examined: 1 worker, Dakusui (Ratô), 4.XI.1928 (J.
Sonan); 1 worker, Fukô, 1.VII.1925 (J. Sonan); 1 worker*, Kagi, 25.VI.1926 (K. Toyota); 2 workers*, Kagi,
10.VI.1926 (K. Toyota); 1 worker*, Kagi, XI.1923 (M. Kato); 1 queen*, Kagi, 24.VII.1924 (K. Toyota); 1 queen*,
Nanto, IV.1910 (G. Toba); 1 queen*, Nanto, IV.1910 (T. Shiraki); 1 worker, Sozan, 29.IX.1926 (J. Sonan); 1
worker*, Taihoku, 27.VIII.1908 (I. Nitobe); 1 worker*, Taihoku, 28.II.1913 (S. Inamura); 1 queen*, Taihoku,
XI.1912 (I. Nitobe); 1 queen, Taihoku, 23.V.1928 (J. Sonan); 1 queen*, Taihoku, VII.1925 (J. Sonan); 1 queen*,
Taihoku, 5.VI.1908 (I. Nitobe); 1 queen*, Taihoku, 3.VII.1[9]26 (J. Sonan); 1 queen*, Taihoku, XI.1912 (I.
Nitobe); 2 workers*, Taihoku, 30.VIII.1925 (J. Sonan); 1 worker*, Takezaki, 15.IX.1926 (J. Sonan). Among these
specimens those with asterisks had been collected before year 1927 when the original description of Vespa formosana
was published, and at the localities mentioned in the original description; they could be examined by Sonan
when he prepared the original description. However, Sonan (1927) did not mention any variation in color pattern or
morphology, and thus we conclude that the original description was based on the three specimens (one queen, one
worker and one male) with the Type labels. The queen specimen from “Taihoku” that has a label of specimen number
“161” is here desiganated as the lectotype of Vespa formosana Sonan 1927. The worker from “Kagi” (specimen
number “162”) and the male with specimen number “163” are paralectotypes.
Bequaert (1936: 345), on the strength of the original descriptions and specimens from “Takao” and “Hu Sia”
[unrecognized locality], synonymized this nominal taxon under Vespa affinis (Linnaeus). Later he (Bequaert 1939:
42) confirmed his own synonymy, mentioning “Dr. K. Yasumatsu sent me recently a specimen of what is called
V. formosana by Japanese entomologists.” However, Bequaert's synonymy has long been overlooked. Van der Vecht
(1957, 1959) did not refer to this synonymy, Kuo (1984) and Kuo & Yeh (1987) used V. formosana to describe ecological
aspects of this species, and finally Starr (1992) referred to Sonan's types and recognized the synonymy of V.
formosana with V. affinis but did not refer to Bequaert's synonymy. The lectotype (and also paralectotypes) of
Vespa formosana here designated belongs to V. affinis and the synonymy of Bequaert (1936) has been confirmed.

2.) Vespa flavitarsus Sonan 1929 [Vespa velutina Lepeletier 1836]
Type material. Sonan (1929) described this nominal taxon with the designation of the queen with collection data
“Taiko-san (Kagi), 4–10.II.1924 (Coll. M. Kato)” as the HOLOTYPE. The holotype is in TARI and has labels of
“Mt. Taiko, Ka- / gi Gun 3350 ft / Feb. 4–10 -1924 / Col. M. Kato”, Type label, “Vespa ♀ / flavitarsus Sonan /det.
J. Sonan”, and “160”. Sonan (1929: 143) listed the following specimens designated as PARATYPES; we located in
TARI those that are marked with asterisks and those for which different number of specimen(s) and/or caste are
given in brackets: 1 queen* & 1 worker*, Arisan, 2–23.X.1918 (J. Sonan, M. Yoshino); 1 worker [1 queen*], Arisan,
3.V.1917 (T. Shiraki, J. Sonan); 3 workers*, Arisan, 10.X.1912 (I Nitobe); 3 queens [2 workers*], Funkiko
(Arisan, 4600ft.), 16.X.1926 (J. Sonan); 1 worker*, Horisha, V–VIII.1918 (Coll. H. Kawamura); 1 worker*, Kayabara,
4.IX.1923 (T. Shiraki, J. Sonan); 2 queens [2 workers*], Karenko, 20.VII–4.VIII.1919 (T. Okuni, J. Sonan,
K. Miyake, M. Yoshino); 2 workers*, Kobayashi (Rato), 29.viii.1923 (T. Shiraki, J. Sonan); 1 worker, Kusukusu,
20.IV.1928 (J. Sonan); 3 workers [1 worker*], Musha, 18.V–15.VI.1919 (T. Okuni, J. Sonan, K. Miyake, M.
Yoshino); 1 worker*, Rikiriki, 23.III.1924 (N. Takeda); 1 worker*, Rimogan, 8.XI.1928 (J. Sonan); 1 worker,
Raisha, 30.VIII.1927 (J. Sonan, K. Shibata); 1 worker [2 workers*], Shinchiku, 1–30.VIII.1918 (J. Sonan, K.
Miyake); 1 worker*, Shinten, 2.VI.1928 (J. Sonan); 1 worker, Shinsuiei, 17.III.1926 (S. Issiki); 1 queen, Taihoku,
30.IV.1919 (I. Nitobe); 1 worker*, Taipin, 12.IX.1910 (T. Shiraki); 2 queens, Takezaki, 15.IX.1926 (J. Sonan); 2
workers* & 1 queen*, Taito, 25.II–25.III.1919 (S. Inamura, J. Sonan, M. Yoshino); 3 workers [1 worker*], Tamaru,
1.IX.1923 (T. Shiraki, J. Sonan); 4 workers*, Tabo, 23.VIII.1923 (T. Shiraki, J. Sonan).
Van der Vecht (1959: 230) treated this nominal taxon as a subspecies of V. velutina, and Starr (1992: 106) synonymized
it under V. velutina by giving “Vespa flavitarsus Sonan 1929: 142–143 [holotype worker examined]” in
the synonym list of V. velutina.
Attachments
Vespa formosana Holotype.jpg
Holotype of Vespa formosana Sonan 1929 Holotype
Vespa flavitarsis holotype.jpg
Holotype of Vespa flavitarsis Sonan 1929 Holotype
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Re: A list of works on the Taiwanese Social Wasp fauna

Postby Anthony Daglio on 26 Feb 2016, 09:27

Notes on Sonan's Holotypes of Vespula species described from Taiwan

1.) Vespa 4-maculata Sonan 1929 [Vespula flaviceps (Smith, 1870)]

Type material. Sonan (1929) described this nominal taxon based on the single female with the collection data
“Arisan, IV.1914 (Coll. M. Maki)”. In TARI we located a single female (queen) with the labels of “VI 1914 / Arisan
/ Col. M. Maki”, “5472”, “Vespa sp. / Det. T. Shiraki”, “Vespa / 4-maculata Sonan / Det. J. Sonan”, Type label,
and “168”. Although the month of collection given on the label is different from that mentioned in the original
description, this specimen should be the HOLOTYPE of Vespa quadrimaculata by monotypy.
Yamane et al. (1980), without examining the types of both V. quadrimaculata and V. karenkona, synonymized
the former under the latter. Based on their observation on colony populations of three nests collected at Kwantauchi
in Nantou, they concluded that “quadrimaculata” was the queen caste and “karenkona” was the worker caste of the
same species. Starr (1992: 109), giving “Vespa karenkona Sonan, 1929: 148–149 [holotype queen examined]” in
the synonym list of Vespula flaviceps, synonymized Vespa quadrimaculata under Vespula flaviceps.

2.) Vespa karenkona Sonan 1929 [Vespula flaviceps (Smith 1870)]

Type material. Sonan (1929: 148) described this nominal taxon based on 3 ♀ with the collection data “Karenkô
(3000–6500 ft.), 20.VII–4.VIII.1919 (Coll. T. Okuni, J. Sonan, K. Yoshino)”. Sonan intended to designate the holotype
and paratypes, and he mentioned “Type: Body length 14 mm Wing span 23 mm (length of fore wing 10 mm.
Paratype: Body length 12–14 mm. Wing span around 23 mm (length of fore wing around 10 mm)” [in Japanese]. In
the description of characteristics, he referred to variations in the marking pattern of the clypeus in a rather ambiguous
way in terms of the holotype designation. That is, he mentioned that “the clypeus has a dark ferruginous, longitudinal,
median line, which does not reach to mid-length of the clypeus” [in Japanese], which would have been the
state in the specimen that Sonan intended to designate as the holotype. Then he gave variation in parentheses that
“this line varies with individuals, such that the line is medially interrupted to become spots or completely disappeared”
[in Japanese]; these two states could have been of the two specimens that Sonan intended to designate as
the paratypes. In TARI, there are 3 ♀ with the same collection data and identification labels, “Formosa / Karenko,
-19. / VII 20–VIII 4. / T. Okuni, / J. Sonan, / K. Miy., M. Yosh.” and “Vespa / karenkona Sonan / Det. J. Sonan”.
The female with Type label has the head and left fore wing detached [we glued them on the attached identification
label]; its body length was measured about 13 mm, the right fore wing is about 9 mm long, and the clepues has no
dark marking. The other 2 ♀ have a Paratype label: their body lengths are about 11 mm and 13 mm, and fore wing
lengths are about 9.5 mm and 10.5 mm; the clypeus of the smaller specimen has a dark ferruginous, longitudinal,
median band, while that of the larger specimen has only a small dark spot. This observation that only the smaller
specimen has the dark median band (or line) on the clypeus suggests that his description of the variations in the
marking pattern of the clypeus were not for the paratypes. In conclusion, we have treated the specimen with Type
label as the originally designated holotype.
Without examining the holotype of Vespa karenkona Sonan, Yamane et al. (1980: 16) treated this taxon as a
subspecies of Vespula flaviceps. Starr (1992: 109), giving “Vespa karenkona Sonan 1929: 148 [types examined:
holotype worker, 2 paratype workers]” in the synonym list of Vespula flaviceps, formally synonymized Vespa
karenkona under Vespula flaviceps.

3.) Vespa arisana Sonan 1929 [Vespula arisana (Sonan 1929)]
Type material. Sonan (1929) described this nominal taxon with the desiganation of the female with collection data
“Funkiko (Arisan 4,600 ft.) 16.XI.1926 (Coll. J. Sonan)” as the HOLOTYPE. The holotype is in TARI and labeled
“Funkiko / 16.XI.1926 / Col. J. Sonan”, Type label, “Vespa / arisana Sonan / det. J. Sonan”, and “167”. He listed
the following specimens designated as PARATYPES: 2 ♀, Arisan (Funkiko), 2–23.X.1918 (J. Sonan, M.
Yoshino); 1 ♀, Horisha, V–VIII.1918 (H. Kawamura); 1 ♀, Taito, 25.II–27.III.1919 (S. Inamura, J. Sonan, M.
Yoshino). Of these paratypes, only a single female from “Arisan” and the female from “Horisha” were located in
TARI.
Attachments
Vespa 4-maculata holotype.jpg
Holotype of Vespa 4-maculata Sonan 1929 Holotype
Vespa karenkona Holotype.jpg
Holotype of Vespa karenkona Sonan 1929 Holotype
Vespa arisana holotype.jpg
Holotype of Vespa arisana Sonan 1929 Holotype
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Re: A list of works on the Taiwanese Social Wasp fauna

Postby Anthony Daglio on 26 Feb 2016, 09:32

Notes on Sonan's holotypes of Ropalidia species described from Taiwan.

1.) Ropalidia taiwana Sonan 1935 [Ropalidia taiwana Sonan 1935]

Sonan (1935a) described this species based on the holotype ♀ and 5 ♀ and 1 ♂ paratypes. All these type specimens
are in TARI and their label data given below agreed with those given in the original description.
Type material. HOLOTYPE ♀: “Formosa / Shinchiku, -18. / VII 1-30. / J. Sonan, / K. Miyake”, “Ropalidia
/ taiwana / Sonan / DET. J. SONAN”, “96”, Type label. PARATYPES: 1 ♀, same collection label as holotype; 1
♀ (possibly pre-adult pupa taken from a nest) “Hori / 20.XI.1932 / Col. J. Sonan”; 1 ♀ “Hassenzan / 23.X.1932
/ K. Nomura”; 1 ♂ “Horisha / 2.XII.1916 / Col. T. Shiraki”; 1 ♀ “Formosa / Koshun, 1918 / IV 25–V 25. / J.
Sonan / K. Miyake, / M. Yoshino”; 1 ♀ “Urai / VII – 1931 / Col. J. Sonan”.

2.) Ropalidia taiwana var. koshunensis Sonan 1935 [Ropalidia taiwana Sonan 1935]

Sonan (1935a) listed the female from “Kuraru (Koshun)” as the holotype, and 11 ♀ and 4 ♂ paratypes. In TARI,
there are, as listed below, the holotype ♀ and 9 ♀ and 6 ♂ specimens marked as “Allotype” or “Paratype”. Sonan
(1935a: 202), as the allotype and paratypes collected in Kuraru on “Oct. 13 1926” and “Oct. 14 1926”, listed 6 ♀
and 4 ♂ and 3 ♀, respectivey. The recognized discrepancy between the number of specimens given in the original
description and that actually exist in TARI could have been because of incorrect labeling or a misprint. Also, Sonan
(1935a: 202) listed a specimen with collection data “Koshun, March 25 1930” as female, but it is actually male.
Type material. HOLOTYPE ♀: “Kuraru / 13.X.1926 / Col. J. Sonan”, “Ropalidia / taiwana Sonan / var. formosensis/
Sonan / DET. J. SONAN”, Type label, “97”. PARATYPES: 6 ♀, 5 ♂ same collection data label as holotype; 2 ♀,
same collection label as hoplotype but “14.X.1926”; 1 ♀ “Koshun 1918 / IV.25–V.25 / J. Sonan / K. Miyake / M. Yoshino”;
1 ♂ “KOUSHUN / 25.III.1930 /Col. T. Shiraki”. :
Attachments
R. taiwana Holotype.jpg
Ropalidia taiwana 1935 Holotype
R. taiwana koshunensis Holotype.jpg
Ropalidia taiwana koshunensis Sonan 1935 Holotype
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Re: A list of works on the Taiwanese Social Wasp fauna

Postby Anthony Daglio on 26 Feb 2016, 09:43

Notes on Sonan's holotype of Parapolybia takasagona from Taiwan and taxonomic notes taken from Kojima et al (2011) and Saito-Morooka et al (2015).

Parapolybia takasagona Sonan 1944 [Parapolybia takasagona Sonan 1944]

Among Sonan's social wasp taxa, this one needs special attention to discuss its taxonomic status. Our conclusion,
as outlined below, treating Parapolybia takasagona as a valid species is tentative. In order to establish a well
corroborated species-level taxonomic system of the Parapolybia indica group, to which P. takasagona belongs,
further intensive studies that covers various “populations” are required.
Sonan (1944) recognized four nominal species in Parapolybia occurring in the territories of the Japanese
Empire of that time. They were: P. varia (Fabricius 1787), which Sonan considered to occur in Taiwan and main
islands of Japan; P. disticha (du Buysson 1913) [currently treated as a synonym of P. varia (van der Vecht 1966),
although its taxonomic status needs further careful examination (F. Saito, unpublished)], which Sonan considered
to occur in the Korean Peninsular; P. indica (de Saussure 1854) in Japan; and P. takasagona. Sonan (1944)
described P. takasagona based on the holotype ♀ collected at Tamaru in Rato District, and 6 ♀ and 6 ♂ paratypes.
In TARI, there are the holotype and 6 ♀ and 5 ♂ paratypes; Sonan (1944) mentioned 3 ♂ from “Kobayashi, Rato”,
but one of them was not located.
Type material. Holotype ♀: “Tamaru (Rato) / 30 VIII 1923 / Col. J. Sonan”, Type label, “Parapolybia
/ takasagona / Sonan / Det. J. Sonan” and “78”, is hardly considered to be discolored in contrast to Starr's (1992)
and Yamane et al.'s (1995), and it well matched the original description (Sonan 1944). The labels of collection data
for female paratypes are as follows: 2 ♀, “Tabo (Rato) / 24 VIII 1923 [1 ♀: 22 VIII 1923] / Col. J. Sonan”; 1 ♀,
“Kobayashi / (Rato) 29 VIII 1923 / Col. J. Sonan”; 1 ♀ with “Arisan / 2.V.1917 / Col. T. Shiraki”; and 2 ♀, “Taiheizan
/FORMOSA / Jul.1930 / S. Minowa”. The two female paratypes from “Tabo” have the occipital carina evanescent
ventrally and certainly belong to a species different from that to which the holotype belongs. One of the two
female paratypes from “Taiheizan” has yellow markings brighter and more abundant than the holotype and the
specimen may possibly belong to a different species. The condition and the label data for the five male paratypes
are as follows: 3 ♂ (1 ♂: second to terminal flagellomeres of the right antenna and fourth to terminal flagellomeres
of the left antenna missing; 1 ♂: metasoma except the first segment, fourth to terminal flagellomeres of the right
antenna and fifth to terminal flagellomeres of left antenna, missing [Sonan may have used this male for genital
observation]), labeled “Kobayashi / (Rato) 28 VIII 1923 / Col. J. Sonan”; 1 ♂ (third to terminal flagellomeres of
both antennae missing), labeled “Taiheizan / 26 VIII 1923 / Col. J. Sonan”; and 1 ♂ with a label of “Taiheizan / 25
VIII 1923 / Col. J. Sonan”.
Starr (1992) examined these type specimens in TARI and concluded that P. takasagona is a valid species, differing
from P. varia (Fabricius 1787). He treated P. takasagona as the senior sysnonym of P. nodosa van der Vecht,
1966, which was described based on the holotype ♀ collected at Pilam [= Beinan, ca. 22°45' N, 121°01' E] in Taiwan
and the female paratypes from four other localities in Taiwan, and Burma (Tenasserim), China (Fukien), India
(Umbaso) and Thailand. However, Starr (1992) referred neither to the conditions of female occipital carinae in type
specimens of P. takasagona nor to that given in the original description of P. nodosa. That is, the female occpital
carina is complete in the holotype of P. takasagona while it is obliterated ventrally in P. nodosa (van der Vecht
1966: 23).
Yamane et al. (1995) examined the holotype of P. takasagona and concluded that P. takasagona was a junior
synonym of P. indica (de Saussure 1854) because “The holotype specimen [of P. takasagona] has complete occipital
carina on gena, which is the most reliable characteristic that constantly separates P. indica from the other Oriental
congeners [P. varia and P. nodosa].” Another reason for their synonymy was that “the occurrence of P. indica in
Taiwan has been strongly suggested by a female specimen collected by Dr. Kenji Ohara near Hsitsun, Taoyuan
(1000–1200 m alt.) and three female specimens housed in the Department of Zoology, Taiwan Museum (Taipei).”
They also mentioned that “the structural characteristics [of the holotype of P. takasagona] well agree with those
[= structural characteristics of P. indica] mentioned by Vecht (1966).” However, the female structural characteristics
that van der Vecht (1966) mentioned are only “Occipital carina complete, extending to the base of the mandibles.
Length (h. + th. + t.1 + 2): 14–17 mm, rarely only 13 mm” (p. 23). Yamane et al. (1995) referred to the color
pattern of the holotype of P. takasagona that it is “in accordance with that of P. indica”, but they did not mention to
which of van der Vecht's (1966) subspecies or forms their “P. indica” corresponded. Yamane et al. (1995) also
mentioned that “Sonan's description of male antenna undoubtedly shows that the males examined by him are also
of P. indica.” This statement might have been made by referring to van der Vecht (1966); but the male characteristics
of P. indica given in van der Vecht (1966: 23) are only “Antennae long and slender, the third and fourth segments
more than six and four times as long as wide, respectively.” Thus Yamane et al.'s (1995) synonymy was
based on poor grounds and Parapolybia takasagona Sonan should be treated as a valid species at least until the
concepts of P. indica and nominal species-group taxa that are now treated as subspecies of P. indica are established.

Taxonomy of Parapolybia takasagona Sonan, 1944

Parapolybia takasagona Sonan 1944: 344, ♀, ♂ “Taipei, Tamaru, Rato” (holotype, ♀ from “Tamaru (Rato)”, TARI); Starr1992, 112, figs. 28b, 30 (syn.: nodosa van der Vecht, 1966); Yamane et al. 1995: 75 (redescription of the type; synonym of Parapolybia indica (de Saussure, 1854)).Diagnosis. This species similar to P. indica, P. nana sp. nov., P. crocea sp. nov., but differs in nodulated T1. Material examined. HOLOTYPE of P. takasagona Sonan 1944, 1 ♀ Tamaru, Rato [= Tianwan, in Datong Township, Yilan County, 24°39'N, 121°27.5'E, 1090 m], 30.viii.1923, J. Sonan [TARI]; PARATYPES of P. takasagona, 3 ♀5 ♂, [3 ♂, Kobayashi, Rato (=? no modern name, 24°39'N, 121°30.5'E, 670 m, Datong Township, Yilan County), 28.viii.1923, J. Sonan; 1 ♀, Taiheizan (Taipingshan or Taiping Mountain, Yilan County, 24°30'N, 121°32'E, 1900 m), ii.1930, S. Minowa; 1 ♀, Kobayashi, Rato, 29.viii.1923, J. Sonan; 1 ♀, Arisan (= Alishan, 23°32'N, 120°48'E), 2.v.1917, T. Shiraki; 1 ♂, Taiheizan, 26.viii.1923, J. Sonan] [TARI]. Other material. 3 ♂(TARI), Lienhuachih, 650 m, Nantou Hsien, xii.1984, K.S. Lin & K.C. Chou; 2 ♀ (NTM; both identified as “Parapolybia indica” by Sk. Yamane in 1994), 159 K, Central Cross Highway, Hualien, [9.ix.1989, C.C. Chiou; 12.viii.1989, J.T. Chao]; 1 ♀ (NTM), Yangmingshan [25°09'N, 121°33'E, 450–550 m], Taipei, 31.v.1994, H.Y. Wang.Description. FEMALE. Body length 14.0–15.0 mm (holotype, 14.0 mm); fore wing length 12.0–13.5 mm (holotype, 13.0 mm).MALE. Body length 12.0–13.0 mm; fore wing length 10.0–11.5 mm. Male antenna length 9.0 mm; F11 about 0.8 mm long, 1.8 × as long as F10.

Distribution. Taiwan.

Remarks. Starr (1992), having examined the holotype of P. takasagona, concluded that P. takasagona was a valid species and the senior synonym of Parapolybia nodosa van der Vecht, 1966; this synonymy, however, has not been accepted (see Yamane et al. 1995; Kojima et al. 2011). Yamane et al. (1995) examined the holotype of P. takasagona and concluded that P. takasagona was a junior synonym of P. indica (de Saussure 1854). Their synonymy, however, as pointed out by Kojima et al. (2011), was not based on a robust taxonomic considaration. Not only based on differences in coloration but also morphological differences [less developed female gena, club-shaped T1], we have concluded that P. takasagona is a good species and might be endemic to Taiwan.
Attachments
P. takasogona Sonan Holotype.jpg
Parapolybia takasagona Sonan 1944 Holotype
Last edited by Anthony Daglio on 27 Feb 2016, 00:39, edited 2 times in total.
Anthony Daglio
 
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Re: A list of works on the Taiwanese Social Wasp fauna

Postby Anthony Daglio on 26 Feb 2016, 09:52

Notes on Sonan's types of some Polistes species described from Taiwan.

1.) Polistes formosanus Sonan 1927 [Polistes (Polistella) formosanus Sonan 1927]

Sonan (1927) described this species based on females (body length 16 mm, wingspan 30 mm, fore wing length
14 mm) and male(s) (body length 16 mm, wingspan 40 mm, fore wing length 18.5 mm) from Horisha, Jukirin
(Shinchiku), Kan-shirei, Keibi, Namakaban (Niitaka-yama), Rikiriki, Sôzan, Taihoku and Urai. He, however, gave
neither number of specimens he examined nor any collection data for each specimen. Saito et al. (2007) designated
a female specimen collected in “Taihoku” as the lectotype of Polistes formosanus Sonan, 1927; the only specimen
from the type series available to them at that time. Saito et al. (2007) provided a picture showing all the labels
accompanying the lectotype and detailed description of adult morphology. In TARI, we located the following specimens
that could be from the type series, and thus are paralectotypes. Based on their morphological characteristics
they all could belong to Polistes formosanus.
Type material. PARALECTOTYPES of Polistes formosanus Sonan, 1927 (all specimens except for the first
one have the Sonan's identification label “Polistes ♀ [or ♂ according to the sex] / japonicus Sauss. / var. formosanus
Son. / Det. J. Sonan”): 1 ♀, “Jukirin / 24.v.1919 / Col. S. Inamura”; 1 ♀ “Kanshirei / 10.xi.1926 / Col. J.
Sonan”; 1 ♀, “KEIBI / 14 IV 1921 / S. TOKUNAGA”; 1 ♀, “Namakaban / 10.IX.1924 / T. Shiraki / J. Sonan”; 1 ♀
“Rikiriki / 20 III 1924 / N. Tokuda”; 1 ♀, “Sozan / 24.9.1926 / Col. J. Sonan”; 1 ♀ “Sozan / 27.x.1926 / Col. J.
Sonan” ; 1 ♂, “Sozan / 19.x.1922 / N. Takeda”; 1 ♀, “Taihoku / 17 VIII 1925 / Col. J. Sonan” and “Polistes / formosana
Sonan / DET. J. Sonan”; 5 ♀, 1 ♂, “Taihoku / 16 VII 1925 / Col. J. Sonan”; 1 ♀, “Taihoku / 14 VII 1925
/ Col. J. Sonan”; 1 ♀, “IX.1912 / Taihoku / Col. I. Nitobe” and “3155”.
Sonan (1938) downgraded his Polistes formosanus to a variant of P. japonicus de Saussure, 1858, and listed
25 ♀ and 4 ♂ (all in the Deutsches Entomologisches Institut) from Horisha, Kankau, Kosempo, Taihorin, Takao
and Paroe (in Taito Prefecture). At the same time, Sonan (1938) proposed “Polistes japonicus var. formosanus f.
koshunensis” based on the “holotype” ♀ and 3 ♀ collected by H. Sauter in Kankau (deposited in the Deutsches
Entomologisches Institut, but one “paratype” in TARI) and 22 ♀ from Garanbi, Kankau, Koshun, Kuraru, Kurau,
Makazayazaya (in Heito-gun), Taihoku and Urai. The name “koshunensis” is unavailable under Article 45.5 of the
Code, and thus these specimens have no type status.

2.) Polistes mandarinus var. eboshinus Sonan 1943 [Polistes (Polistella) eboshinus Sonan 1943]

Sonan (1943: 483) described Polistes mandarinus var. eboshinus based on 62 ♀ and 5 ♂ from Arisan, Bakulas,
Baron in Shinchiku Province, Bukai in Taichu Province, Doba (foot of Taiheizan), Eboshi (foot of Taiheizan),
Funkiko, Karenkou, Matanguru in Taitou, Musha, Oiwake (Musha), Rarasan, Rikiriki in Takao Province, Saukan
in Taiheizan, and Taiheizan, but he neither gave any collection data of each specimen nor designated the holotype.
Starr (1992) referred to type materials housed in TARI, mentioning “types examined: holotype ♀, 7 paratype ♀, 2
paratype ♂”. As Starr (1992) did not give any data that specify the specimen that he referred to as “holotype”, his
statement does not constitute valid lectotype designation [Article 74.5 of the Code (ICZN 1999)].
In TARI, we located 54 ♀ and 6 ♂ that are, judging from the collection data and attached Sonan's identification
labels, from the type series. However, the number of the male specimens (six) is larger than that given in Sonan
(five). Eight ♀ and 2 ♂ that possess Type/Paratype/Allotype labels could be the specimens that Starr (1992)
referred to as type materials. The type series certainly included two distinct species; the species to which the specimens
marked with asterisks belong might be “sp. A” in Starr (1992) and could be an undescribed species.
Type material. LECTOTYPE of Polistes mandarinus var. eboshinus Sonan, 1943 (here designated): ♀ labeled
“Taiheizan / 26 VIII 1923 / Col. J. Sonan”, “Polistes mandarinus / Sauss. var. ♀ / eboshinus Sonan / DET. J.
SONAN” and “POLISTES / EBOSHINUS / Sonan / Det. Starr, 1991”. PARALECTOTYPES: In drawer 93–23:
1 ♂, “Funkiko / 16 XI 1926 / Col. J. Sonan”, Allotype label, “Polistes mandarinus / Sauss. var. ♂ / eboshinus
Sonan / DET. J. SONAN”, “132”; 1 ♀, “Formosa / Musha, 1919. / V 18–VI 15. / T. Okuni, / J. Sonan, / K. Miy., M.
Yosh.”, “Polistes mandarinus / Sauss. ♀ / eboshinus Sonan / DET. J. SONAN”, Paratype label, “130”; 1 ♀, “Formosa
/ Musha, 1919. / V 18–VI 15. / T. Okuni, / J. Sonan, / K. Miy., M. Yosh.”, “Polistes mandarinus / Sauss. ♀
/ eboshinus Sonan / DET. J. SONAN”, Paratype label, “130”; 1 ♀, “Namakaban / 19.IX.1924 / T. Shiraki / J.
Sonan”, Paratype label, “Polistes mandarinus / Sauss. ♀ / eboshinus Sonan / DET. J. SONAN”, “131”; 1♀, “Saukan
/ Taiheizan / 16–18 VII 1938 / J. Sonan”, Paratype label, “Polistes mandarinus / Sauss. ♀ / eboshinus Sonan
/ DET. J. SONAN”, “129”; 1 ♂, “Taiheizan / VII 20. 1935 col. J. Sonan”, Paratype label, “Polistes mandarinus
/ Sauss. var. ♂ / eboshinus Sonan / DET. J. SONAN”, “133”; 3 ♀ [in addition to the following labels, one with
Type label and “124”, and the other two with Paratype label, and “125” or “128”], “Takeyama / 16 V 1926 / Co. J.
Sonan”, “Polistes mandarinus / Sauss. ♀ / eboshinus Sonan / DET. J. SONAN”; 2 ♀ [these 2 ♀ specimens apparently
belong to a species different from that of the lectotype; their specific affiliation await future taxonomic studies],
“Eboshi / Taiheizan / 12–14 VII 1938 / J. Sonan”, Paratype label, “Polistes mandarinus / Sauss. ♀ / eboshinus
Sonan / DET. J. SONAN”, “126” [or “127' ], “Polistes (Polistella) / spec. / Det. S. Yamane”. In drawer 94–08
(all the paralectotypes in this drawer except one indicated by “[without ID label]” have a label “Polistes ♀ [or “♂”
accordingly] / mandarinus Sauss. / var. eboshinus Sonan / Det. J. Sonan”): 1 ♀, “Formosa / Arisan, 1918. / X 2–23.
/ J. Sonan / M. Yoshino”; 1 ♂, “Arisan / 191[?].X.10 / Col. I. Nitobe”; 1 ♀, “14 / IV 1910 / Bakulas / Col. I.
Nitobe”; 2 ♀ “Formosa / Karenko, -19. / VII 20–VIII 4, / T. Okuni, / J. Sonan, / K. Miy., M. Yosh.”; 1 ♀, “Baron
/ FORMOSA / 10 IV 1941 / Col. J. Sonan”; 1 ♀, “Bukai / FORMOSA / 28 VIII 1940 / Col. J. Sonan”; 1 ♀, “Dobo
/ 19 VII 1935 col. J. Sonan”; 1 ♀ “Rikiriki / 20.III.1924 / N. Takeda”; 1 ♀, “Funkiko / 16 XI 1926 / J. Sonan”; 1 ♀,
“Matanguru / Kanzangoe / 28.VI.1936 / Col. R. Takahashi”; 3 ♀, “Formosa, / Musha, 1919. / V 18–VI 15, / T.
Okuni, / J. Sonan, / K. Miy., M. Yosh.”; 1 ♀, “Rakurku / 18.IX.1924 / T. Shiraki / J. Sonan”; 1 ♀, “Rato / 18. VII
1935 col. J. Sonan”; 1 ♀, “Saukan / Taiheizan / 16–18 VII 1938 / J. Sonan”; 1 ♀ [without ID label], “Taiheizan
/ FORMOSA / 30 VII 1935”; 1 ♀, “Taiheizan / 20 VII 1938 / J. Sonan”; 1 ♀, “Taiheizan / 21 VIII 1935 / T. Hiwatari”;
1 ♀, “Taiheizan / 26.VIII 1927 / Col. J. Sonan”; 1 ♀, “Taiheizan / 27 IV 1935 col. J. Sonan”; 1 ♀, “Taiheizan
/ III-30-1936 / Col. J. Sonan”; 1 ♀, “Taiheizan / VII. 21. 1935 col. J. Sonan”; 1 ♂, “Taiheizan / VII 21 1935 col. J.
Sonan”; 2 ♀, “Taiheizan / 5.VI. 1937 / Col. Ikeda Narumi [collector's name given in Chinese characters]”; 2 ♂,
“Taiheizan / 20.V.1935 col. J. Sonan”; 6 ♀, “Taiheizan / VII. 20. 1935 col. J. Sonan”; 1 ♀* [headless, pinned with a small nest],
“14/IV 1910 / Bakulas / Col. I. Nitobe”; 2 ♀*, “Dobo / 19 VII 1935 col. J. Sonan”; 5 ♀*, “Eboshi/ Taiheizan / 12–14 VII 1938 /
Col. J. Sonan”; 1 ♀*, “Formosa / Karenko, -19. / VII 20–VIII 4. / T. Okuni, / J. Sonan, / K. Miy., M. Yoshi”; 2 ♀*,
“Rato / 18 VII 1935 col. J. Sonan”; 1 ♀*, “Taiheizan / 20 VII 1935 col. J. Sonan”; 1 ♀*, “Formosa / Musha. 1919 / V 18–VI 15 /
T. Okuni, / J. Sonan, / K. Miy., M. Yoshi”.

3.) Polistes mandarinus de Saussure 1853 [probably Polistes (Polistella) eboshinus Sonan 1943]

Sonan (1938: 69) listed 1 ♀ with the collection data “Taihorin, vi.1911 (H. Sautter)” and deposited in the Deutsches
Entomologisches Institut. He mentioned “this species is common in Formosa.” This statement was probabaly based
on the type series of Polistes mandarinus var. eboshinus Sonan, 1943; all type specimens we located in TARI had
been collected before the year 1938.
Attachments
Polistes formosanus holotype.jpg
Polistes formosansus Sonan 1927 Lectotype and color variation of females of Polistes formosanus 1927 Sonan and P. japonicus Saussure (1858)
Polistes formosanus holotype.jpg (11.27 KiB) Viewed 997 times
P. formosana Holotype.jpg
Polistes formosanus Sonan 1927 Lectotype
P. mandarinus holotype.jpg
Polistes mandarinius var eboshinus Sonan 1943 Lectotype
Anthony Daglio
 
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Re: A list of works on the Taiwanese Social Wasp fauna

Postby Anthony Daglio on 27 Feb 2016, 00:49

In my opinion more work needs to be done on the Social wasp fauna of Taiwan as A few new endemic species could occur i.e. Polistes spp#A and Polistes Spp.#B as well as a few more Polistes variants according to Starr (1992), Yamane & Wang (1996), and Kojima et al (2011). Also of note is two possible endemic Vespine species V. schrenkii spp (of Yamane & Tano (1985) and V. karenkona which has been treated as a subspecies of V. flaviceps by Yamane et al (1980), Yamane & Tano (1985), Starr (1992), Yamane & Wang (1996) and Kojima et al (2011). Recently Persson (2015) found that the Japanese V. flaviceps lewisii and Chinese populations of Vespula flaviceps are genetically separable and possible distinct. The same will most likely apply to the Taiwanese population V. flaviceps karenkona Sonan. I also have been doing a revision of the Vespula rufa group on a worldwide basis and have formed the conclusion that V. schrenkii spp form Taiwan is in fact a valid species that is currently unnamed. Further research should be conducted on these interesting forms.

Additional reference on Vespula flaviceps: Persson (2015) Phylogeny and taxonomy of the subfamily Vespinae (Hymenoptera; Vespidae) based on five molecular markers: http://www.academia.edu/15446871/Persso ... ar_markers
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